Saturday, February 24, 2018

An Introduction to Waterstop

For the complete presentation, please visit HERE.

The first waterstops used in construction were comprised of strips of lead or copper. In the early 1900s the preferred waterstop material shifted to vulcanized rubbers such as neoprene or styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). While rubber waterstops had excellent mechanical properties (high tensile strength and great elongation) they had one major weakness: they were extremely difficult to field fabricate as the rubber was vulcanized, meaning it had already taken a “set” (thermoset) and could not be heat welded together like the metals used previously.

In 1926, a new plastic compound was invented by Waldo Semon of the B. F. Goodrich Company: plasticized PVC. Semon was attempting to dehydrohalogenate (non-plasticized) PVC in a solution of boiling solvent in order to to create an unsaturated polymer that would be useful for bonding rubber to metal. The results of Semon’s experiment was the creation of a thermoplastic with properties very similar to rubber.  
It took many years for plasticized PVC to find suitable commercial applications, and was first used as a waterstop material in the early 1950s. Back then, the material was properlylabeled as fPVC or flexible PVC. 

The first wide-scale test of any waterstop was performed in 1954 by the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, Canada. The results of this test are still used by many manufacturers as a benchmark, and other than some new polymers, waterstop has not really changed that much since then. 

For the complete presentation, please visit HERE.

Thursday, February 15, 2018

Chemical Resistant Waterstop Trench Modules

Earth Shield® Waterstop manufactures complete drop-in-place trench modules for the petrochemical industry. Learn more HERE.

Thursday, January 11, 2018

The Importance of NSF 61 in Waterstops

NSF/ANSI Standard 61 was developed to establish minimum requirements for the chemical contaminants and impurities that are indirectly imparted to drinking water from products, components, and materials used in drinking water systems.

Standard 61 is intended to cover specific materials or products that come into contact with drinking water, drinking water treatment chemicals, or both. The focus of Standard 61 is evaluation of contaminants or impurities imparted indirectly to drinking water.

In the U.S., 47 of 50 states have legislation that requires compliance with NSF/ANSI Standard 61. Products that are NSF Certified against NSF/ANSI Standard 61 demonstrate compliance with both Canadian and U.S. Plumbing Codes. NSF Certification and Testing is widely accepted. NSF data is recognized by ASSE, BOCA, IAPMO, ICBO-ES, SBCCI, City of Los Angeles and many others.

Water is arguably the most valuable resource in the world. Today’s water treatment, distribution, and storage projects are under ever-increasing layers of regulations and requirements, one of the foremost being that components and materials that contact potable water not have potential adverse human effects.

Earth Shield® TPV Waterstop, with NSF 61 certification, is the perfect choice for today’s critical water projects, and in particular drinking water projects.

Thursday, December 28, 2017

The Importance of Water

Life as we know it is unsustainable without water. Water is so essential for life that civilizations have risen and collapsed, due to their capacity, or lack thereof, to harvest a continual supply of water.

Without question, water along with oxygen is our most precious resource, and great care must be taken to protect it. Governments around the world have recognized this fact and have crafted byzantine codifications mandating protection protocols, treatment programs, and storage and distribution regulatory requirements.

The most predominant problems facing the world in regards to water are:
 Quantity — Only 2.5% of the earth’s water is freshwater, and much of it is inaccessible as it is frozen in icecaps or glaciers, or in the ground.
 Quality — According to the United Nations, by the year 2025, 50% of the world’s population will be facing a daily struggle to find enough water to meet their basic needs.

Water is essential for human life.
While quantity effects many nations, quality is primarily a problem of the developing world. Modern water treatment systems throughout the developed world have eradicated most deadly pathogens, and thankfully your nightly news is not filled with stories of outbreaks of cholera or typhoid.
Because water is such a finite resource, and so basic to our survival, we must take every possible precaution in safeguarding it throughout its entire lifecycle: extraction, treatment, storage, distribution, and process.

Concrete is the preferred building material used in regards to water structures. Whether it’s a megalithic concrete dam, holding back tens of millions of gallons of water, or pretreatment and treatment units at your municipal water treatment plant, you will see that it’s made of concrete. Concrete is a great building material for water structures, as it is can be made fluid-proof and strong; has a very long lifecycle; and is relatively easy to manufacture and install almost anywhere in the world. On the downside, concrete can not be truly functional without the addition of joints, and joints will leak unless adequate provisions are made to fluid-proof them. This is the sole function of waterstop: to prevent the passage of fluids through concrete joints.

Saturday, December 09, 2017

Hydrophobic Waterstop for Concrete Joints

When most engineers or contractors think of a “waterstop” what they’re generally referring to is a 50-foot long section of a flexible, water-proof material (usually plastic or rubber), six to nine inches wide, and installed along the concrete joint in between the formwork. This waterstop is more accurately defined as a hydrophobic waterstop: A waterstop designed to prevent the passage of fluids by repelling them along and away from the waterstop product, and creating an internal dam at and along the concrete joint. Hydrophobicity is the amount of water repulsion of the surface of the waterstop, and can actually be measured: Place a drop of water on the flat side of the waterstop to be tested and measure the relief angle of the water drop. The sharper the angle the more hydrophobic the waterstop material is. An angle 90 degrees or greater makes the waterstop truly hydrophobic and this product will actively move fluids along the joint and away from the source.
A waterstop that will perform well must have adequate strength and extensibility to avoid be torn or ruptured by joint movement. The best waterstop products are able to maintain these properties (high tensile strength, good elongation [ASTM D-412]) when exposed to the installed environment for the service life of the structure. Exposure conditions which could affect a waterstop’s service life are:

  1. Temperature
  2. UV exposure
  3. Ozone exposure
  4. Chemical attack

Hydrophobic TPV Waterstop by Earth Shield
Because hydrophobic waterstops act as dams at the concrete joint, a general rule of thumb is the greater the size of a waterstop (waterstop size is actually it’s width, e.g. 4”, 6”, 9”, etc.), the greater the head pressure the waterstop will resist. A small 4” waterstop is more than suitable for a containment wall surrounding a tank farm, or even a swimming pool in a back yard, but would be completely inappropriate for the foot of a large dam. Giant concrete structures such as dams or locks will require 9” wide waterstops or greater.

It’s not just width (size) that effects waterstop performance, thickness also plays an important role. Just like conventional dams, the thicker waterstops are able to resist higher head pressures of water (or other aqueous fluids).

Because proper installation plays such a critical part in the effectiveness of a given waterstop system, the very best waterstops are those that can be fused and fabricated easily. For this reason, the majority of today’s design engineers specify and require thermoplastic waterstops (such as PVC or #waterstop), and not the earlier thermoset varieties (neoprene, SBR, natural rubber). Thermoplastic materials have the ability to be easily field fabricated for simple change of directions and the joining of straight lengths; whereas, the earlier thermoset rubber materials generally were ineffectively glued and clamped together causing a severe weakness in the waterstop diaphragm and leaking.

A waterstop’s cross-sectional area is called its profile, and there are lots of profiles to choose from, but really they all share the same basic anatomy: a series of fins or bulbs to provide interlock with the concrete, the body or web to provide the necessary rigidity and product width, and possibly a hollow cavity or bulb to enable the waterstop with additional movement properties.

By far, the largest difference between various waterstops on the market today are the polymers they are constructed of, and the services offered by various manufacturer’s. It is up to the individual designer to find a manufacturer that offers the desired set of services and support for their project. These after-sale services and support are truly what separates a great manufactured waterstop from a poor one. Just remember, “Choose wisely.” A waterstop is permanently installed in concrete (much like rebar) and there really are no second chances to get it right.

Thursday, November 16, 2017

We've Got Waterstop Splicing Irons

JPS Standard Irons are specifically designed for welding waterstops and other thermoplastic extruded profiles (expansion joints, seals, etc.). The temperature control can be adjusted from 250°F to 500°F to accommodate various ambient conditions and different polymers. All JPS Standard Irons are constructed with the highest quality components.

waterstop splicing irons
JPS Standard Waterstop Splicing Irons

Designed for the waterstop pro! Our Pro Series irons feature all the same attributes as our regular irons plus built-in thermometer, temperature control knob, outdoor-use power cord (UL and CSA approved), ergonomic vinyl grip, sealed elements, and a Silverstone coating that doesn't require covers.

  • Built-in analog thermometer
  • Sealed end caps (meets EU Standards)
  • Silverstone-coated — No Teflon® covers required
  • Better, ergonomic handgrip
  • 8-foot, CSA & UL certified, outdoor use power cord
  • Meets CEGS 03250 requirements
JPS Pro-Built Waterstop Splicing Iron

Saturday, October 21, 2017

Proper Installation of Expansion Board Cap Waterstop Profiles

  1. Part No. JP158 — 1” screed key cap, as manufactured by JP Specialties, Inc. (designed for keyed joints) 
  2. Part No. JP1225 — 1” integrated screed key cap seal waterstop, as manufactured by JP Specialties, Inc. (designed for keyed joints; if specified with factory installed brass eyelets use part no. EYJP1225) 
  3. Part No. JPEB350 — 1/2” integrated cap seal waterstop, as manufactured by JP Specialties, Inc. (designed for expansion joints; if specified with factory installed brass eyelets use part no. EYJPEB350) 
  4. Part No. JPEB375 — 3/4” integrated cap seal waterstop, as manufactured by JP Specialties, Inc. (designed for expansion joints; if specified with factory installed brass eyelets use part no. EYJPEB375) 
  5. Part No. JPEB375R — 3/4” integrated cap seal retrofit waterstop, as manufactured by JP Specialties, Inc. (designed for expansion joints; if specified with factory installed brass eyelets use part no. EYJPEB375R) 

Integrated expansion board cap waterstop systems are designed to replace post-applied joint sealant, and provide a fluid-tight internal seal like a traditional waterstop with a one-step, integrated unit. Earth Shield expansion board cap waterstop is installed on top of conventional expansion board filler or Earth Shield’s own chemical resistant, plastic expansion board. The expansion board acts as the form; therefore, no form splitting is necessary. This greatly accelerates the project schedule and provides a long lasting, attractive finished concrete joint. Earth Shield screed key cap slides over the top of metal screed key, eliminating the need for sealant. Like all our thermoplastic vulcanizate waterstops, Earth Shield integrated cap system waterstop can be heat-welded using a standard waterstop splicing iron. This allows for easy field fabrications, and allows the waterstop to function as a continuous, homogeneous, fluid-tight diaphragm. Waterstop change of directions can be purchased along with straight roll stock, and custom, fit-to-print waterstop modules are produced to order. Prefabricated ells, tees, tank pads, column fittings, and many others are in stock and ready to ship.
  1. Protect waterstop from damage during progress of work.
  2. Clean concrete joint after first pour to remove debris and dirt.
  1. Prior to placement of concrete notify engineer for field inspection approval.
  2. Inspect waterstop and field splices for defects.
  3. Upon inspection of waterstop installation, replace any damaged or unacceptable waterstop and dispose of defective material.
  1. Place the JP EBCapstop over the top of the expansion board.
  2. Securely fasten the JP EBCapstop the expansion board so that the JP EBCapstop is flat against the header board. Any kinks in the JP EBCapstop should be straightened out before it is fastened to the header board. The JP EBCapstop should be mechanically fastened (nails or staples) below the flange.
  3. The fastening devices should be placed every 6" to 12" on center to maintain the alignment of the JP EBCapstop along the header board. For the best protection against liquid penetration, care should be taken to not tear or puncture the JP EBCapstop above the flange.
  4. Pour the concrete and screed to the top of the JP EBCapstop. It is imperative that the concrete totally encapsulates the flange in order to eliminate any voids or honeycombing below the flange and to form a liquid tight barrier. Care should be taken if the concrete is vibrated or rodded to avoid damaging the JP EBCapstop.
  5. The concrete should be vibrated, or thoroughly rodded, near the joints to insure proper consolidation around and under the flanges.
  1. It is imperative that the concrete not be subjected to loads until it has reached the rated strength per the design requirements (minimum 3,000-psi).
  2. When pouring concrete in a checkerboard pattern the exposed edge of the expansion board must be protected from traffic and abuse. Driving over exposed header boards will initiate cracking. i.e. It is not good practice to drive over the header board onto or off of the poured slab. Doing so may cause cracking, even if the concrete has reached its design strength (3,000-psi minimum).
  3. Loads that exceed the rated strength of the concrete shall not be allowed. If cranes are to be used for tilt-up construction, the weight of the crane must be considered in the concrete strength specification.
For welding, fabrication, placement, execution, and quality assurance please follow all procedures stated in Earth Shield Master Specification Section 03250.

Thursday, October 05, 2017

Base Seal Waterstop

Base seal waterstop is ideal for flat pavement jobs such as runways, large containment slabs, etc. Base seal waterstop is by far the easiest waterstop to install... Simply lay the waterstop directly on the compacted sub-grade, place and finish concrete, and create control joint using saw cut or other method. The base seal provides a permanent, life-of-structure seal at the bottom of the joint. Base seal is suitable for construction, contraction (control), and expansion joints. Base seal should not be used on jobs that make interior wall transitions as the part is non-symmetrical and therefore cannot function correctly. For large hydrostatic head pressures (>50 foot) ribbed centerbulb should be used instead.